The practice known as overclocking (formerly known as undertiming) aims to achieve a higher clock speed for an electronic component (above the manufacturer’s specifications).1 The idea is to get higher performance for free, or exceed the current fees of performance, although this may result in a loss of stability or shorten the service life of the component. Overclock is an anglicism commonly used in computing , which literally means, on the clock, that is, increase the clock frequency of the central processing unit or simply upload frequencies.
This practice is widespread among users of information technology more demanding, trying to maximize the performance of their machines. Some users usually buy computer components, low-cost, forcing them later and thus reaching the performance expected of the components of higher range. On the other hand, the consumers more fans can get the latest components of the market to force its operation, and thereby obtain evidence of performance unattainable for any consumer equipment.For this reason, most manufacturers choose to not include in the warranty of yourhardware the damages produced by them for overclocking.
By increasing the clock frequency also increases the current consumption and the waste heat, which could affect other components; for this reason it might be necessary to replace the cooling system by a more advanced one, which would mean an extra cost.
The purpose of overclocking is to gain additional performance of a particular component increasing their speed of operation. Usually, in modern systems, the overclocking it is aimed to increase the performance of a chip or subsystem, such as the main processor or the graphics controller, but also on other components such as system memory (RAM) or a bus system (usually on the motherboard). The offsets increase the consumption of energy (heat) and the fan noise (cooling) for the specific components. Most of the components are designed with a safety margin to cope with conditions outside the control of the manufacturer; as the temperature and the fluctuations in the operating voltage. The techniques of overclocking general commercial simulate this margin of safety by placing the device at the upper end of the margin, causing the temperature and voltage should be more strictly supervised and controlled by the user since the remaining «cushion of safety» is reduced. In the case of the temperature would require increased cooling, as the part will be less tolerant to higher temperatures at a greater speed; also base voltage can be increased to compensate for voltage drops unexpected, and to reinforce the signaling and synchronization of the signals, such as excursions of low voltage is more likely to cause malfunctions at high speeds of operation.
While most modern devices are quite tolerant of overclocking all devices have finite limits, generally for any given voltage that most will have a maximum speed of «stable» where they still work correctly. Beyond this speed, the device starts to give incorrect results, which can lead to malfunctions and behavior sporadic in any system in function of him. While in the context of PC, the usual result is the blocking of the system, more subtle errors can go unnoticed, over a sufficiently long period of time can give you unpleasant surprises such as corruption of data (incorrectly calculated results or worse writing storage incorrectly), or the system will fail only during certain specific tasks (general use such as internet browsing and word processing appear fine but any application that advanced graphics crashes the system).
At this point an increase in voltage of a part can allow more space for new increases in clock speed, but voltage increases, can also increase heat production. At some point there will be a limit imposed by the ability to supply the device with enough power, the ability of the user to cool the part and the tolerance of the maximum voltage of the device before it reaches destructive failure. Enthusiastic use of voltage or cooling inadequate can quickly degrade performance to the point of failure, or in extreme cases directly to destroy it.
The speed gained by overclocking depends largely on the applications and workloads running on the system and what components are to be overclocks by the user; publish the reference points for a variety of purposes.
On the contrary, the main goal of underclocking is to reduce the power consumption and resulting heat generation of a device, with the advantages and disadvantages to be lower clock speeds and reductions in performance. Reduce the cooling requirements necessary to maintain a piece to an operating temperature determined to have drag benefits as reducing the number and speed of fans allow quieter operation and on mobile devices increase the duration of the battery per charge. Underclock of some manufacturers of components of the equipment with batteries to improve the life of the battery, or put in place systems that detect when a device is operating under battery power and reduce the clock frequency accordingly. Underclocking participates almost always in the latter stages of Undervolting that seeks to find the clock speed higher than a processor that is stable, operates at a determined voltage.That is to say, while overclocking seeks to maximize the clock speed, temperature and power as constraints, underclocking is about finding the clock rate higher than a device can operate reliably in a power limit fixed, arbitrary. A device can operate at his speed stock even undervolted, underclocking, in which case he would be hired only after further reductions in the voltage finally destabilizes the party. At that time, the user would have to determine whether speed and voltage operating satisfactorily passed have reduced energy consumption to their needs, if not then performance must be sacrificed, a lower clock is chosen (underclock) and testing progressively lower voltages would continue from that point. A lower limit is when the device does not work or the circuitry supporting reliable can not communicate with the part.
Underclocking and undervolting are treated generally if a system needs to run silently (like a media player), but you want a more high performance that is offered by offers of low voltage of a manufacturer-determined processor. The constructor will try to take a part a desktop of high performance with a higher thermal power joint and see if the processor will run with lower voltages and speeds within a goal of performance/noise is acceptable for the construction. So they can give you some options to undervolt/underclock a standard voltage processor in an application of «low tension» to avoid the payment of a premium price for a version officially certified low voltage (some versions of low-power are significantly more expensive and still tend to be still slower than the equivalent desktop), or if you require better performance than that offered by the low-powered processors.
Technically, any component that uses a timer or clock to synchronize the internal operations of his can be overclocked. Most of the efforts of the components of the computer, however, focus on specific components such as processors (also known as CPU), video cards, motherboard chipset RAM. The most modern processors derive their speeds of operation effective by multiplying a clock base (traditionally the processor bus speed) by a multiplier within the processor (the CPU multiplier) to reach its final speed. Computer processors are usually overclocks by manipulating the multiplier on the CPU if this option is available, but the processor and other components can also be overclocked by increasing the base speed of the clock of the bus. Some systems allow you to tune additional of other watches (such as a system clock) that have an influence on the clock speed of the bus that, again, is multiplied by the processor to allow a fine adjustment of the final speed of the processor.
A practical consideration if an component that can be overclocked is if the adjustments required to change clock speeds are actually accessible to the user. For example, most pre-built OEM systems do not expose the necessary adjustments for the change of processor clock speed or voltage, prevention of forced clock (for reasons of warranty and support); while the same processor that is installed on a different motherboard offering adjustments allow you to change them.
Any component ultimately, will cease to operate reliably beyond a certain clock speed. Usually components will show some kind of behavior defective, or another indicator of stability is compromised that alerts the user that a given speed is not stable, but there is always the possibility that a component will fail permanently without any notice, even if the voltages are kept within some pre-determined «safe» securities.The maximum speed is determined by overclocking to the point of instability first, then ok the last stable configuration slower. The components are only guaranteed to function properly up to its nominal value; beyond various samples may have different potential for overclocking. The end point of an overclock since it is determined by such parameters as multipliers of CPU available, dividers of the bus voltages; the user’s ability to handle thermal loads, cooling techniques;and several other factors of the individual devices themselves (the user can’t control, just «luck» if a party is a «good clocker» or not) as semiconductor clock and thermal tolerances, interaction with other components and the rest of the system.
There are several things to consider when overclocking. First is to ensure that the component is supplied with sufficient power at a sufficient voltage to operate at the new clock rate. However, feed it with the wrong settings or applying excessive voltage can permanently damage a component.In a production environment professional, overclocking is only likely to be used where the speed increase justifies the cost of the skilled manpower required, the possibly reduced reliability and consequent effect of exceeding the indices of manufacturers in maintenance contracts and warranties, and the highest consumption of energy. If it is faster, but not the maximum possible, speed is required it is often cheaper when you consider all the costs to acquire hardware faster.
All electronic circuits produce heat generated by the movement of the electric current. Clock frequencies in digital circuits and voltage applied increase, the heat generated by the components operating at higher levels of performance also increases. The relationship between clock frequencies and power thermal design (TDP) are linear. However, there is a limit to the maximum frequency is called a «wall.» To resolve this issue, overclockers raise the voltage of the chip to increase the potential of overclocking. Voltage increases power consumption and consequently heat generation significantly (proportional to the square of the voltage in a linear circuit, for example); This requires more cooling to avoid damaging the hardware by overheating. In addition, some digital circuits decreases at high temperatures due to changes in the characteristics of the device MOSFET. On the contrary, the overclocking can decide decrease the voltage of the chip while overclocking (a process known as undervolting) to reduce emissions of heat while the performance is optimal.
Cooling systems are designed for the amount of energy produced during the use without overclock; circuits of overclock can require more cooling, such as powerful fans, larger heatsinks, heat-pipes and water-cooling. Mass, shape and material can influence the ability of a heat sink to dissipate the heat. Heat sinks efficient are often made entirely of copper, which has a high thermal conductivity, but is expensive.  aluminum is more widely used; it has good thermal characteristics, but not as good as copper, and is significantly cheaper. Cheaper materials such as steel do not have good thermal characteristics. Pipes of heat can be used to improve the conductivity. Many heatsinks combine two or more materials to achieve a balance between performance and cost.  Inside of a computer cooled by water, which shows the water block, tubing and pump on the CPU. Cooling water takes heat useless to a radiator. Devices of thermoelectric cooling, which actually refrigerate using the Peltier effect can help with high power thermal design (TDP) processors made by Intel and AMD in the early TWENTY-first century. Cooling devices thermoelectric create temperature differences between two plates and running an electric current through the plates.This method of cooling is very effective, but itself generates significant heat elsewhere which must be carried, often by a heat sink based on convection or a water cooling system . Liquid nitrogen can be used for the cooling of a system overclock, when it is necessary in an extreme measure of cooling. Other cooling methods are forced convection and phase transition cooling is used in refrigerators and can be adapted for computer use.Liquid nitrogen, helium líquidoy dry ice are used as coolants in extreme cases, as the record of attempts or experiments point instead of a system of everyday cooling. In June 2006, IBM and Georgia Institute of technology jointly announced a new record of silicon chip-based clock rate (the rate a transistor can be switched in him, not the CPU clock type) above 500 GHz, which was done by cooling the chip to 4.5 K (-268.6 ° C, -451.6 ° F) with liquid helium.  the world record of CPU frequency is 8,429 GHz as of September 2011.  these extreme methods are generally impractical in the long term, they need to fill reservoirs of vaporizing coolant, and condensation can form on components cooled.  on the other hand, silicon-based junction gate transistors, field-effect (JFET) will degrade below temperatures of roughly 100 K (-173 ° C; -280 ° F) and eventually cease to function or «freeze» at 40 K (-233 ° C; -388 ° F) since the silicon ceases to be semiconducting use of refrigerants with very cold can cause devices not.
Cooling by immersion, used by the superordenador of Cray-2 , involves sinking a part of computer system directly to a heat transfer fluid that is thermally conductive but has low electrical conductivity. The advantage of this technique is that no condensation can form on components.  a liquid submersion good is Fluorinert made by 3m, which is expensive. Another option is mineral oil, but impurities such as those in water might cause it to conduct electricity.
How to do overclocking
Overclocking has traditionally been the domain of the strictly nerds, but with the passing of the years, hardware manufacturers have made the basic process much simpler. Overclocking can give your computer a significant increase in performance under the potential risk of damaging the hardware itself. To achieve a balance during the overclocking is more of an art form than a science, since every piece of hardware reacts differently. Read the steps below to start doing it on your own computer.
Understand the basics of overclocking. Overclocking is the process that consists of increasing the clock speed and voltage of your computer to improve its performance. It is a great way to give an enhancement bonus to an older machine, or extract a little more power out of a computer economic. For enthusiasts, overclocking is essential for getting up to the maximum rate of frames of the intensive programs.
- Overclocking can damage computer components, especially if the hardware is not designed to do this or if you increase too much the voltage. You should only do this if you don’t have problems with the possibility of destroying the hardware.
- There are No two systems give the same results with overclocking, even if they have exactly the same hardware. This is because overclocking is greatly affected by small variations in the manufacturing process. Do not groundwork your expectations solely on the results you read on the Internet for the hardware that you have.
- If basically you are looking to increase the performance in video games, you may want to perform overclocking on your graphics card, so you’ll probably see better results.
- Laptops are not very good candidates for this procedure, since their cooling capacities are limited. You’ll get much better performance on a desktop computer where you have better control of the temperatures.
Download the necessary tools. You’ll need some programs of benchmarking and tools to test the resistance with the aim of adequately test the results of overclocking. These programs test the performance of your processor as well as its ability to maintain that performance over time.
- CPU-Z: this is a monitoring program of simple that will allow you to quickly see your clock speed and voltage in Windows. Do not take any action, but it is a program easy to use control that helps ensure that everything works properly.
- Prime95: this program is a benchmark widely used to test the resistance. It is designed to run for long periods of time.
- LinX: this is another program to measure the resistance. It is lighter than Prime95, and is good for testing in between each change.
Check the motherboard and the processor. When it comes to overclocking, different motherboards and processors will have different capabilities. There are also slight differences when it comes to making an overclock on a chipset AMD and Intel, but the general process is the same. The most important thing that you should look for is if the multiplier is unlocked or not. If the multiplier is locked, you can only adjust the clock speed, which generally produces less results.
- Many motherboards are designed for overclocking and will give you complete access to the controls of the overclocking. Check your computer documentation to determine the capabilities of your motherboard.
- Some processors are more adapted to withstand overclocking than others. For example, the line “K” of the Intel i7 processor is specifically designed for overclocking (for example, Intel i7-2700K). You can find the model of your processor by pressing the key ⌘ Win+Pausa and look in the System section.
Run a resistance test standard. Before you start with the process of overclocking, run a stress test using the standard configuration. This will give you a reference point to compare while you start with the overclocking, and will also show if there is any problem with the database in the configuration that you need to solve before overclocking make it worse.
- Be sure to check the temperature during the endurance test. If it is greater than 70 °C (158 °F), you probably can’t get as much of the overclocking before the temperature becomes dangerous. You may need to apply a thermal paste or install a new heat sink.
- If your system hangs during the resistance test standard, then it is likely there is a problem with the hardware that you need to solve before you start with the overclocking. Check your memory RAM to see if there are any errors.
Increase the clock basis
Opens the BIOS. You will make the most of the changes in the BIOS of the computer, which is the configuration menu that you can access before the operating system loads. You can access most BIOS by pressing the key Supr during the startup of the computer. Other keys that you can use are F10, F2 , and F12.
- All BIOS are different, so menu labels and locations may vary between systems. Don’t be afraid to investigate the menu system to find what you need.
Opens the option “Frequency/Voltage Control” (Control of voltage/frequency).This menu may be labeled differently, such as “Overclocking”. This is the menu in which you’ll spend most of the time, since it will allow you to adjust the speed of the computer as well as the voltage it receives.
Reduces the speed of the memory bus. To prevent the memory from causing errors, you’ll need to reduce the bus before continuing. This can be referred to as “Memory Multiplier” (memory Multiplier), “DDr Memory Frequency” (Frequency of DDR memory) or “Memory Ratio” (Ratio of memory). Lower it to the lowest possible value.
- If you can not find the options of memory frequency, press ^ Ctrl+⎇ Alt+F1 in the main menu of the BIOS.
Increases the clock basis at 10%. The clock base, also referred to as a front side bus or bus speed, is the base speed of the processor. Usually, it is a lower speed, which is multiplied to achieve the total speed of the core. Most processors can handle a rapid increase in the 10 % at the beginning of the process. For example, if the clock is 100 MHz and the multiplier is 16, the clock speed will be 1.6 GHz. Increase it in 10% of a single time I would change the base clock to 110 MHz, and the clock speed to 1.76 GHz.
Running a test of endurance. Once you’ve made the initial increase of 10 %, restarts the computer and starts the operating system. Start the program LinX and run it for several cycles. If there are no problems, you’re ready to proceed. If the system is unstable, you may not be able to get a better performance with overclocking and need to reset the default settings.
Increases the clock basis until the system becomes unstable. Instead of increasing by 10% each time, you’ll want to reduce the increments to 5 or 10 MHz at a time. This will allow you to find the optimal point more easily. Run a program of benchmarking each time you make any adjustment until you reach an unstable state. What is more likely is that the instability is due to the processor not receiving enough power from the power source.
- If your motherboard does not allow you to adjust the multiplier, then you can move on to the fourth section of this guide. If you can adjust it, it goes to the next section to do that and get a greater profit. Be sure to record the settings you’re currently using in case you want to get back to it after.
Increase the multiplier
Decreases the clock basis. Before you start to increase the multiplier, you’ll want to slightly decrease the clock basis. This will allow you to increase the multiplier more accurate. Use a clock with a lower base and a higher multiplier will lead to a more stable system, but a clock-based higher with a multiplied more low will produce a better performance. The goal is to find the perfect balance.
The multiplier increases. Once you’ve lowered a little the clock basis, it begins to increase the multiplier in increments of 0.5. The multiplier can have the name of “CPU” or something similar. When you find it, for the first time, could be set to “Automatic” instead of a number
Performs a test of endurance. Restart the computer and run the program benchmarking. If your computer does not report any error after a few tests with the program benchmarking, you can continue to increase the multiplier. Repeat this process each time you increase the multiplier.
Monitors temperatures. Be sure to pay close attention to the levels of temperature during the process. You can achieve a temperature limit before the system becomes unstable. If this is the case, you might have reached the limits of your ability to do overclocking. At this point, you must find the best balance between increasing the clock base and the multiplier.
- Although each computer has a range of safe temperature different, the general rule is to not let it reach 85 °C (185 °F).
Repeat the process until you reach the limit and the computer will hang up. You must now have settings that just make your computer to become unstable. While the temperature is kept within safe limits, you can begin to adjust the voltage levels to allow for a greater increase.
Increase the voltage
Raise the core voltage of the CPU. This can be referred to as “Vcore Voltage” (voltage of the processor core). Increase the voltage beyond safe limits can quickly damage the computer, so this is the most painstaking and potentially dangerous process of overclocking. Every CPU and every motherboard can handle voltage swells different, so pay extra attention to the temperature.
- When you increase the core voltage, do it in increments of 0.025. If you raise more, you will run the risk of going too high and damage the components.
Performs a test of endurance. At the end of the first increase, run a stress test. Given that you left the system in an unstable state in the previous section, your goal is to have a stress test stable. If the system is stable, make sure that the temperature will follow at an acceptable level. If the system is still unstable, try lowering the multiplier or the speed of the clock base.
Return to the section of the watch base or multiplier. Once you have managed to stabilize the system by increasing the voltage, you can increase the clock base or multiplier, depending on what you want to perform the overclocking. Do it in the same small gains, running stress tests until the system re-stabilizes.
- Given that the configuration of voltage increases the temperature to the maximum, your goal should be to maximize the configuration of the clock base and the multiplier to get the most performance with the least voltage possible. This will require a lot of trial and error in addition to experimentation as you try different combinations.
Repeat the cycle until you reach a voltage or maximum temperature. In the end, you will come to a point where you cannot perform any increased or the temperature will rise to dangerous levels. This is the limit of your motherboard and the processor, and it is likely that you cannot pass beyond this point.
- In general, you should not increase the voltage more than 0.4 above its original level or in more than 0.2 if you’re using a cooling system basics.
- If you reach the temperature limit before reaching a voltage limit, you could do more increments to improve the cooling system in your computer. You can install a heat sink or a fan more powerful or opt for a solution of liquid cooling more expensive but much more effective.
Resistance test end
Returns you to the last safe configuration. Decreases the clock base or the multiplier to the last stable configuration. This will be your new processor speed, and if you’re lucky, will be noticeably greater than it was before. If everything starts up without problems, you’ll be ready for the final test.
It increases the speed of the memory. It increases the speed of the memory up to their initial levels. Do it slowly, testing the resistance in the process. You may not be able to increase it again to its original levels.
- Use Memtest86 to test the memory as you increase the frequency.
Performs a test of endurance prolonged. Open Prime95 and performs the test for 12 hours. This may seem like a long time, but your goal is to ensure rock-solid stability for extended periods of time. This will produce a better performance and more reliable. If your system becomes unstable during the trial or the temperature reaches unacceptable levels, you will need to go back and reset the clock speed, the multiplier and the voltage.
- When you open Prime95, select the option of “Just Stress Testing” (just do a resistance test). Click on Options (options) → Torture test (torture) and set it to “Small FFT”.
- In general, a temperature limit is not a problem, since Prime95 to force your computer more than most programs. You may even want to reduce the overclocking a point to be sure. The temperature in idle state must not exceed 60 °C (140 °F).
Performs some tests in real life. While the programs of resistance test are excellent to attached of your system to be stable, you’ll want to make sure that you can handle the randomness of the real-life situations. If you are a video game player opens the game more demanding you are. If you encode videos, try to encode a Bluray. Make sure that everything works as it should. It perhaps works even better now!
Takes the process further. This guide only scratches the surface of what can be done in regards to overclocking. If you want to know more, you should make a research and experimentation. There are several communities dedicated to overclocking and its various related fields, such as refrigeration. Some of the most popular are Overclockers.com, Overclock.net and Tom’s Hardware, and all are excellent places to start to look for more detailed information.
- To make the overclocking with higher voltage will shorten the life of your hardware.
- Depending on the manufacturer, this may void the warranty of your computer. Some brands like EVGA and BFG will continue to comply with the warranty even after you have made overclocking the device.
- You will need a good cooling system to perform overclocking powerful.
- In most of the computers made by Dell (with the exception of the line XPS), HP, Gateway, Acer, Apple, etc, it is not possible to perform the overclocking due to the option to change the FSB (stands for front side bus) and the voltage of the CPU is not available in the BIOS.
SOURCE > WIKIPEDIA
- ↑ http://www.pcstats.com/articleview.cfm?articleid=1804&page=6
- ↑ http://www.overclockers.com/3-step-guide-overclock-core-i3-i5-i7/
- ↑ http://lifehacker.com/a-beginners-introduction-to-overclocking-your-intel-pr-5580998/all
- ↑ http://www.techradar.com/us/news/computing-components/processors/beginner-s-guide-to-overclocking-1040234/2#